Some recommended resources
James J. Gigantino II, The Ragged Road to Abolition: Slavery and Freedom in New Jersey, 1775-1865 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015)
Gordon Mikoski, “A Failure of Theological Imagination: Beginning to deal with the legacy of Princeton Seminary on matters of slavery and race,” Theology Today (July 2016): 157- 67.
James H. Moorhead, “Slavery, Race and Gender at Princeton Seminary: The Pre-Civil War Era,” Theology Today (Oct. 2012): 274-88.
Craig Steven Wilder, Ebony and Ivy: Race, Slavery, and the Troubled History of America’s Universities (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2013).
Sean Wilentz, “Princeton and the Controversies over Slavery” Journal of Presbyterian History (Fall/Winter 2007): 102-11.
Statements by Princeton Seminary Professors and the President of the Board of Directors
Archibald Alexander: History of Colonization on the Western Coast of Africa (Philadelphia: 1846; second edition 1849).
Ashbel Green: “Resolution of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church” on the subject of slavery (1818). Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America from its organization A.D. 1789 to A.D. 1820 inclusive (Philadelphia: 1847), 692-694.
Charles Hodge: various articles in the Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review, especially “Slavery” 8/2 (April 1836); 268-305; “West India Emancipation” 10/4 (October 1838) 602-644; “President Lincoln” 37/3 (July 1865) 435-458. It is also interesting to see the portions of the 1836 article which were cut or modified at the beginning and the end when it was reprinted in Augusta, Georgia, in 1860 in Cotton is King, and Pro-slavery Arguments, along with other writings on slavery, by E.N. Elliott, president of Planters’ College, Mississippi.
Secondary on Charles Hodge: Allen C. Guelzo “Charles Hodge’s Antislavery Moment” in Stewart & Moorhead (eds.), Charles Hodge Revisited (Grand Rapids: 2002); David Torbett, Theology and Slavery: Charles Hodge and Horace Bushnell (Macon, Georgia: 2006) esp. pp. 91- 114, where he deals with the question of development of Charles Hodge’s thinking on the subject of slavery and explores the issue “Did Hodge Change His Mind?”
Alexander T. McGill: “The Hand of God with the Black Race: A Discourse Delivered before the Pennsylvania Colonization Society” (Philadelphia: 1862); American Slavery, as Viewed and Acted on by the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (Philadelphia: 1865); “Patriotism, Philanthropy, and Religion: An Address before the American Colonization Society, January 16, 1877” (Washington City: 1877).
Samuel Miller: “A Discourse Delivered April 12, 1797, at the Request of and Before the New-York Society for Promoting the Manumission of Slaves, and Protecting Such of Them as Have Been or May Be Liberated” (New York: 1797); “A sermon, preached at Newark, October 22, 1823, before the Synod of New Jersey, for the benefit of the African School, under the care of the Synod” (Trenton: 1823).
Statements by Others Connected to Princeton Seminary
Matthew Anderson: Presbyterianism. Its Relation to the Negro. Illustrated by The Berean Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, with Sketch of the Church and Autobiography of the Author (Philadelphia: 1897).
Albert Barnes: Inquiry into the Scriptural Views of Slavery (Philadelphia: 1846; 1857); The Church and Slavery (Philadelphia: 1857).
Daniel Wallace Culp: Twentieth Century Negro Literature or a Cyclopedia of Thought on Vital Topics Relating to the American Negro (Toronto: 1902).
Francis Grimke: The Works of Francis Grimke, ed. by Carter G. Woodson (Washington, D.C.: 1942).
Samuel Blanchard How: Slaveholding Not Sinful (New Brunswick: 1856).
James Adair Lyon: “Slavery, and the duties growing out of the relation,” Southern Presbyterian Review (July 1863).
Henry Jackson Van Dyke: The Character and Influence of Abolitionism (several editions published in New York, Washington, D.C. and Charleston: 1860 and 1861).
Cortlandt van Rensselaer: Miscellaneous Sermons, Essays, and Addresses by the Rev. Cortlandt van Rensselaer, D.D. (Philadelphia: 1861).
Material for Biographical Studies
John Miller Dickey: George B. Carr, John Miller Dickey, D.D. His Life and Times (Philadelphia:1929).
Robert Finley: Isaac V. Brown, Biography of the Rev. Robert Finley, D.D., of Basking Ridge N.J.: with an account of his agency as the author of the American Colonization Society: also a sketch of the slave trade; a view of our national policy and that of Great Britain towards Liberia and Africa (Philadelphia: 1857) (an earlier version was published in 1819 in New Brunswick); see also Finley’s “Thoughts on the Colonization of Free Blacks” (Washington City, 1816?).
Francis Grimke: Henry Justin Ferry, Francis James Grimke, portrait of a Black Puritan (New Haven: 1970).
Charles Colcock Jones: The Religious Instruction of the Negroes in the United States (Savannah: 1842); Suggestions on the Religious Instruction of Negroes in the Southern States (Philadelphia: 1847); Religious Instruction of the Negroes: An Address delivered before the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, at Augusta, Ga., Dec. 10, 1861; Robert Manson Myers, The Children of Pride; a true story of Georgia and the Civil War [selected from the family papers of the Rev. Dr. Charles Colcock Jones (1804-1863) of Liberty County, Georgia] (New Haven: 1972); Eduard Nuessnee Loring, Charles C. Jones: Missionary to Plantation Slaves 1831-1847 (Ann Arbor: 1976); Thomas Pinckney, “The Missionary Work of Charles Colcock Jones: Successes and Failures of the Union of Christianity and Slavery in the Early Middle Nineteenth Century” (Senior thesis, Princeton University, 1993); Lillian Young Nave, “Reverend Charles Colcock Jones: a portrait of the life of an individual trapped in the intersection of slavery and Christianity in the antebellum South” (B.A. thesis, Williams College: 1995); Erskine Clarke, Dwelling Place: a Plantation Epic (New Haven: 2005); Robin Manson Myers, A Georgian at Princeton (New York: 1976).
Elijah Lovejoy: There are a number of biographies of Elijah Lovejoy which have been published over the years. From the 19th century see Memoir of the Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy: who was murdered in defence of the liberty of the press, at Alton, Illinois, Nov. 7, 1837, by Joseph C. and Owen Lovejoy; with an introduction by John Quincy Adams (New York: 1838) and Henry Tanner, Martyrdom of Lovejoy. An Account of the life, trials, and perils of Rev. Elijah Lovejoy (Chicago: 1881). Twentieth century biographies include Melvin Jameson, Elijah Parish Lovejoy as a Christian (Rochester: 1910?); Nelson Miles Heikes, Sketch of the life of Elijah Parish Lovejoy (Albion, ME: 1923); Norman Dunbar Palmer, The Conversion of Elijah Parish Lovejoy and its Results (Waterville, ME: 1947); John Gill, Tide without turning: Elijah P. Lovejoy and freedom of the press (Boston: 1958); Merton Lynn Dillon, Elijah P. Lovejoy, Abolitionist Editor (Urbana, IL:1961); and Paul Simon, Lovejoy, Martyr to Freedom (St. Louis: 1964). For contemporary accounts see Leonard Worcester, A Discourse on the Alton Outrage (Concord, NH: 1838); Edward Beecher, Narrative of the Riots at Alton (original printing 1838; reprint New York: 1970); William S. Lincoln, Alton Trials (New York: 1838).
Betsey Stockton: Eileen F. Moffett “Betsey Stockton: Pioneer American Missionary” International Bulletin of Missionary Research (April 1995); John A. Andrew III “Betsey Stockton: Stranger in a Strange Land” Journal of Presbyterian History (Summer 1974); Constance K. Escher “She Calls Herself Betsey Stockton” Princeton History (no. 10: 1991) [Although generally good, be aware that Constance Escher is incorrect in implying here that Betsey Stockton ever attended “classes in theological studies at Princeton Theological Seminary”; she did receive a broad educational background in the home of Ashbel Green, the first president of the Seminary’s Board of Directors and further education, including certainly some basic theological education, at the home of the Presbyterian minister and educator Nathaniel Todd, who was related by marriage to Ashbel Green, and she attended Sabbath School classes taught by Princeton Seminary students, including Michael Osborn (Class of 1822.) She may very well have received some tutoring from other students at Princeton College and at the Seminary at various points during her Princeton years. She remained very close to the family of Charles S. Stewart (Class of 1821) throughout her adult life. It is also clear that she would have heard the sermons of Archibald Alexander and others connected with the Seminary at various Princeton worship services, including a sermon by Princeton Seminary student Eliphalet Gilbert (Class of 1816) which Green specifically mentions as being influential on her in his letter to the American Board.] The surviving portions of Betsey Stockton’s journal of her voyage to Hawaii have been reprinted on the African American Religion: A Documentary History website: (http://www3.amherst.edu/~aardoc/Betsey_Stockton_Journal_1.html) There are currently two full-length biographies of Betsey Stockton underway as of this date.
Theodore Wright: Daniel Paul Morrison, “Rev. Theodore Sedgwick Wright (1797-1847) Early Princeton Theological Seminary Black Abolitionist, with an appendix containing transcription of the publications of Theodore Sedgwick Wright” (Research paper, Princeton, NJ: 2005)
American Colonization Society: The literature on the American Colonization Society is immense and both its contemporaries and later historians have taken divergent views in evaluating it. An excellent historiographical review of published studies of the American Colonization Society displaying the changing scholarly views on the American Colonization Society may be found beginning on page 413 of Marie Tyler-McGraw, An African Republic: Black and White Virginians in the Making of Liberia (Chapel Hill: 2007). Some recent treatments include Philip John Staudenraus, The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865 (New York:1961); Eric Burin, Slavery and the peculiar solution: a history of the American Colonization Society (Gainesville, Fl.: 2005); Ousmane K. Power-Greene, Against Wind and Tide: The African American Struggle against the Colonization Movement (New York: 2014); and Beverly C. Tomek and Matthew J. Hetrick (eds.), New Directions in the Study of African American Recolonization (New York: 2017), which gathers together a diversity of current and sometimes opposing scholarly views on the ACS and its activities. The records of the American Colonization Society are deposited at the Library of Congress. Of particular value regarding the opinions and activities of the American Colonization Society in New Jersey is Historical Notes on Slavery and Colonization: with Particular Reference to the Efforts which have been made in favor of African Colonization in New-Jersey (Elizabethtown: 1842)
Ashmun Institute/Lincoln University: This important African American educational institution was founded in 1854 to provide higher education for African Americans by Princeton Seminary alumnus John Miller Dickey (Class of 1827). The opening address was given by Cortlandt Van Rensselaer (Class of 1833), who donated $50,000 to the founding of the school. An account of its founding may be read in George B. Carr, John Miller Dickey, D.D. His Life and Times (Philadelphia: 1929) and in Horace Mann Bond Education for Freedom: A History of Lincoln University (Princeton: 1976). Princeton Seminary alumni continued to be connected with this institution for many years after its founding.